Señalan las fortalezas y debilidades del sector automotriz en TLCAN

by / 81 Comments / 6 View / 13/08/2017

México ha acelerado su proceso de transformación, al pasar de ser una plataforma de bajo costo para el ensamblaje de vehículos ligeros a una cadena productiva mejor integrada y más diversificada en términos de productos y modernización tecnológica.

“Esto último permitiría esperar una densificación del tejido productivo de mayor contenido tecnológico, lo que fortalecerá la posición de México en una industria sometida a fuertes presiones derivadas de las nuevas tendencias”, aseguró la Comisión para América Latina y El Caribe (Cepal), organismo dependiente de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU).

En su reporte presentado hoy sobre inversión extranjera directa, la Cepal detalló que la industria automotriz mexicana aporta más de 3% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) del país y 18% del PIB manufacturero, así como un superávit comercial superior a 52,000 millones de dólares (mdd) al año.

Además, el sector ha captado una inversión extranjera directa de más de 51,200 mdd, que le han permitido generar unos 900,000 empleos directos y una producción de vehículos que en 80% se destina a la exportación.

De esta forma, México es el séptimo productor del mundo y el cuarto exportador global de vehículos, de cuyos mercados de destino una porción de 86% la conforman Canadá y Estados Unidos.

A unos días de que comiencen los trabajos para la revisión del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) —marco de negocios que ha favorecido al sector automotriz—, la Cepal formuló previsiones sobre el futuro inmediato que aguarda a las armadoras establecidas en México.

De entrada, consideró como un primer desafío “la transformación impulsada por la revolución tecnológica que experimenta la industria automotriz global”, además de los cambios del concepto de movilidad y de los patrones de consumo.

El documento del organismo también destacó como otros factores importantes “la presión regulatoria en torno a la seguridad, el medio ambiente y la eficiencia energética”, además del “clima de incertidumbre causado por los anuncios emitidos por la nueva administración de Estados Unidos”.

Debilidades

La Cepal reconoció que, si bien México ha sido capaz de atraer a los principales fabricantes mundiales y a un número muy significativo de proveedores de primer y segundo nivel, el país aún muestra cierto rezago respecto a las empresas de tercer y cuarto nivel.

“Esto revela la debilidad de la estructura productiva local, particularmente en lo que se refiere a las pequeñas y medianas empresas con un alto componente de conocimiento y tecnología”, consignó la Cepal.

Esta realidad, “además de ser una oportunidad perdida para incrementar el valor agregado local en los productos automotores, limita la propagación de los beneficios productivos y tecnológicos indirectos al resto de la economía local”, añadió el informe.

La Cepal también calificó como “insuficientes” los avances en materia de creación y optimización de capacidades locales en materia de recursos humanos, ciencia, tecnología e innovación y desarrollo empresarial, aunque reconoció que “México ha progresado notablemente en estos ámbitos”.

“De contar con un tejido industrial más denso y capacidades locales más sólidas, la industria automotriz mexicana enfrentaría menores riesgos frente a los cambios que comienza a experimentar el sector”, puntualizó el organismo de la ONU.

Asimismo, advirtió que una eventual “perturbación de las cadenas productivas de la industria automotriz” en América del Norte —producto de nuevas políticas en Estados Unidos o de la renegociación del TLCAN— “tendrá fuertes efectos negativos en términos de empleos y competitividad”.

La Cepal concluyó que “más allá de la negociación comercial en curso, la respuesta (mexicana) tendrá que apoyarse en nuevos esfuerzos de política sectorial y tecnológica en el contexto de la actual realidad de la industria automotriz mundial”.

Redacción: Manufactura

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